Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Lo Viana em Qua Ago 26, 2009 3:44 pm

D
A
D
E
C
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Convidad em Sex Ago 28, 2009 5:08 pm

1-D
2-A
3-D
3-E
3-C

Convidad
Convidado


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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  joneselder em Sex Ago 28, 2009 10:53 pm

GABARITO

1-D
2-A
3-D
3-E
3-C

Bem, como parece que não houve muitas dificuldades vou deixar algumas palavras-chaves do texto:

Debt - Débito ou Dívida
Environment - Ambiente (A maioria das pessoas conhece como meio ambiente, mas pode ser usado como qualquer ambiente)
Issue - Assunto/Problema/Emissão
To issue - Emitir
Namely - A saber
To attach - Anexar/Atrelar
GDP - Gross Domestic Product - PIB
Encompass - Abrange
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  joneselder em Dom Ago 30, 2009 12:13 pm

Gabarito em 03/09

The Latin American Economies

For decades, the economies of Latin America were heavily protected. Government ownership of industry was widespread. Foreign investment was minimal. The theory was that to end dependence on basic commodities (coffee, sugar, copper), industries had to be protected against bigger – usually U.S. – companies. Nationalism and economics made a marriage of convenience.

But beginning in the 1980s, Latin governments changed, because economic performance was dismal and Asia’s example was instructive. The phrase “Washington consensus” was soon coined by economist John Williamson of the Institute for International Economics to denote the policies that the U.S. government and Washington-based institutions ( the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund) were advocating: lower tariffs, higher foreign investment, tighter budgets, less
inflation.

Brazil exemplified the shift. In 1985, tariffs averaged 80 percent; by 2000, they were 15 percent. Privatization of nationalized companies exploded; from 1996 to 2001, Brazil received nearly $150 billion in foreign direct investment. As The Economist notes, the changes have benefited Brazil. Hyperinflation ( exceeding 1,000 percent annually ) was conquered. But there was no permanent boom, and since 1999, the economy has slowed.

1- According to the author, Latin America’s economic situation
a) served as a model for the Asian countries.
b) has shown no significant shift since 1980.
c) was poor in the 1980s, thus requiring change.
d) has remained unquestionable since 1980.
e) should not have been influenced by the World Bank.

2- The text mentions
a) a set of policies derived from certain institutions.
b) the recent urge to raise international tariffs.
c) Argentina’s economic and social turmoil.
d) Asia’s lack of trade with the Latin American region.
e) the lack of economic changes in South America.

3- According to the text, Brazil
a) symbolizes the refusal to promote economic changes.
b) has been unable to fight inflation.
c) has rejected the free-market model.
d) became dependent on Asian investments.
e) has promoted economic renewal within its borders.

4- The author says that hyperinflation was conquered, which means it
a) ought to be controlled.
b) was controlled.
c) was achieved.
d) must have been foreseen.
e) might have been avoided.

5- In the main, the text deals with
a) the North-American countries.
b) the Asian policies in the world.
c) the undeniable Brazilian nationalism.
d) economic shifts in Latin America.
e) the unchanged economic scenario.
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  jeani_bs em Seg Ago 31, 2009 1:29 pm

1)C
2)A
3)E
4)C
5)D
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Convidad em Seg Ago 31, 2009 10:46 pm

1-C
2-A
3-E
4-B
5-D

Convidad
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  raspadotacho em Ter Set 01, 2009 3:34 pm

1-C
2-E
3-E
4-B
5-D

Brasil
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Convidad em Qua Set 02, 2009 7:43 am

1-C
2-E
3-B
4-B
5-D

Convidad
Convidado


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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Convidad em Qua Set 02, 2009 5:27 pm

1-C
2-E
3-B
4-B
5-D

Convidad
Convidado


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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Convidad em Qua Set 02, 2009 5:37 pm

1- C
2- E
3- B
4- C
5- D

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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Fabi em Qua Set 02, 2009 7:51 pm

1-C
2-A
3-E
4-B
5-D
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Lo Viana em Qui Set 03, 2009 9:53 am

D
A
E
B
D
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  joneselder em Qui Set 03, 2009 10:46 pm

GABARITO

1- C
But beginning in the 1980s, Latin governments changed, because economic performance was dismal.

A performance da economia era funesta e os governos latinos precisavam de mudanças.

Dismal significa sombria, escura ou funesta.

A maneira mais fácil de responder essa seria por eliminação:

a-) Errada, porque diz que a América Latina inspirou a Àsia. Ocorreu o inverso.
b-) Errada, porquanto o Brasil teve mudanças significativas.
d-) Errada, porque o FMI advogava a redução de tarifas, o aumento de investimentos estrangeiros, orçamentos contidos, redução da inflação e tais medidas foram benéficas ao Brasil.
e-)Errada, porque é igual a B.

E reforçando: Sempre que tivermos duas alternativas muito semelhantes, desconfie, pois é quase certo que nenhuma delas é a correta.

2-A

The phrase “Washington consensus” was soon coined by economist John Williamson of the Institute for International Economics to denote the policies that the U.S. government and Washington-based institutions ( the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund) were advocating: lower tariffs, higher foreign investment, tighter budgets, less inflation.

O texto de fato menciona um conjunto de medidas que certas instituições advogavam.

3-E

Privatization of nationalized companies exploded; from 1996 to 2001, Brazil received nearly $150 billion in foreign direct investment.

Within it borders siginifica além de suas fronteiras.

O Brasil com a privatização das empresas nacionalizadas, de fato, promoveu uma renovação econômica além de suas fronteiras.

4-B

As The Economist notes, the changes have benefited Brazil. Hyperinflation ( exceeding 1,000 percent annually ) was conquered.

I- Se foi benéfica, antes de mais nada, a resposta tem que ter um argumento positivo.
II- O verbo está no pretérito perfeito.

Então, temos que eliminar qualquer "modal verb" que indique possibilidade, porque não estamos diante de uma.

a) ought to be controlled. - Possibilidade.
b) was controlled. - Foi controlada. (alternativa correta)
c) was achieved. - Conquistar a hiperinflação não é um benéfico.
d) must have been foreseen - Possibilidade.
e) might have been avoided - Possibilidade.

5-D

A resposta vem de uma leitura global do texto. E, de fato, ele trata de mudanças na América Latina.


Última edição por joneselder em Qui Set 03, 2009 10:47 pm, editado 1 vez(es) (Razão : Erro de formatação.)
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  joneselder em Qui Set 03, 2009 10:54 pm

Vocabulário[b]

As palavras que podem ter causado alguma dúvida:

Dismal= Sombrio/Escuro/Funesto.
Ownership= Propriedade
Renewal= Renovação
Shift= Mudanças
To advocate= Defender/advogar.
To coin= Forjar/Inventar
To turmoil= Tumulto
Urge= Anseio
Widespread= Difundido

E só uma dica em relação ao must.

Must em uma sentença afirmativa é uma dedução forte.

He must speak English. - Ele deve falar inglês.

Em uma sentença negativa é uma proibição e não uma dedução negativa.

He must not speak English. - Ele está proibido de falar inglês.
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Lo Viana em Sex Set 04, 2009 9:36 am

Parabéns, Joneselder!

Mais uma vez, sua contribuição foi show de bola!

Joia
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Convidad em Sex Set 04, 2009 10:06 am

Joneselder, vc poderia traduzir a questão 2 pra mim, por favor?

Convidad
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  joneselder em Sex Set 04, 2009 10:56 am

Obrigado, Lo Viana! :-)

Joconcurseira,

Veja se com a tradução, fica mais fácil de entender a questão dois:

2- The text mentions
a) a set of policies derived from certain institutions.
b) the recent urge to raise international tariffs.
c) Argentina’s economic and social turmoil.
d) Asia’s lack of trade with the Latin American region.
e) the lack of economic changes in South America.

2-O texto menciona
a)um conjunto de políticas oriundas de certas instituições
b)o recente anseio de aumentar as tarifas internacionais
c)economia e tumulto social da Argentina
d)a falta de comércio entre a Àsia e a região da América Latina
e)a falta de mudanças na América do Sul

Qualquer dúvida pode perguntar, ok?
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  joneselder em Dom Set 06, 2009 6:40 pm

GABARITO EM 10/09

Mountain of 90's Debt Looms as City and State Feel Pinch

By RICHARD PÉREZ-PEÑA and JAMES C. McKINLEY Jr.

New Yorkers say their region stands alone in all sorts of ways. But few citizens of this sprawling city and state know it is the undisputed leader in an undesirable arena: government debt.

New York City and New York State are far and away the largest debtors in the nation, outside the federal government. The city has $42 billion in loans outstanding, and the state has $38 billion. No one else is even close, the State of California running a distant third, at $25 billion.

Now, as New York navigates the narrow fiscal straits brought on by recession and the Sept. 11 attack, and surpluses have given way to yawning deficits, those debts loom larger, fiscal monitors say. The state and city each spend about $4 billion a year on debt payments, limiting the money available to weather a crisis without cutting essential services or resorting to fiscal gimmicks that push today's costs onto future
generations.

In announcing his budget plan last week, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg proposed that the city take on even more debt, $1.5 billion, to help cover a $4.7 billion budget gap. That would mean selling bonds to cover day-to-day expenses, something the city has not done since the fiscal crisis of the
1970's.

Mr. Bloomberg acknowledged that doing so was an extraordinary step, and all but pleaded with bond-rating agencies to accept the tactic, promising that borrowing to reduce coming years' deficits would not become an annual tool. The mayor also wants to refinance some debt, to reduce the interest payments over the next several years to get through this tough stretch. Borrowing money can play an important, valued role in government — one accepted by even the most conservative critics — when it is used to pay for high-cost, long-lasting assets like bridges, railroads and power plants that would otherwise take decades to buy. The question, then, is not whether to borrow, but to what degree.

1- The text says that, in relation to the level of government debt, most residents of the city and the State are

a) shocked by it.
b) anxious to settle it.
c) prepared to repay it.
d) turning a blind eye to it.
e) unaware of it.

2- According to the text, New York City and New York State

a) ought to borrow large sums of money to renew their basic infrastructure.
b) will need to borrow money to rebuild the economy after September 11.
c) may have to borrow new money to cover their large fiscal deficits.
d) will be obliged to reduce public services to repay their massive debts.
e) are the second and third biggest public debtors in the United States.

3- In the writers’ view the problem is

a) not borrowing in itself, but borrowing to cover routine daily spending.
b) how to sell bonds to finance special new fiscal gimmicks.
c) navigating the fiscal straits to roll debt over for future generations.
d) persuading conservatives that public spending will promote recovery.
e) rebuilding the city’s damaged infrastructure in the aftermath of September 11.

4- Each year, servicing the huge existing debt costs the City and the State together around

a) 1.5 billion dollars.
b) 4 billion dollars.
c) 4.7 billion dollars.
d) 8 billion dollars.
e) 38 billion dollars.

"In this world nothing is certain but death and taxes" Benjamin Franklin, 1789

5- The quotation by Benjamin Franklin points out that death and taxes

a) show that there is nothing certain in this world
b) prove the uncertainty of life in this world
c) may be the only certainties in this world
d) represent uncertainties in our present life
e) are the only certainties in this world
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  jeani_bs em Ter Set 08, 2009 3:29 pm

1)E
2)C
3)C (?)
4)B
5)E
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Convidad em Ter Set 08, 2009 5:31 pm

1-E
2-C
3-A
4-D
5-E

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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Fabi em Qua Set 09, 2009 1:40 pm

1-D
2-C
3-C
4-B
5-E
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  Convidad em Qua Set 09, 2009 9:19 pm

e
e
a
d
e

Convidad
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  joneselder em Qui Set 10, 2009 8:59 pm

1-E

The text says that, in relation to the level of government debt, most residents of the city and the State are:

E- Unaware

New Yorkers say their region stands alone in all sorts of ways. But few citizens of this sprawling city and state know it is the undisputed leader in an undesirable arena: government debt.

Unaware siginifica inconsciente, ignorante , desconhecedor etc. Como poucos sabiam, implica dizer que a maioria desconhecia.

2-C (anulada posteriormente)

In announcing his budget plan last week, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg proposed that the city take on even more debt, $1.5 billion, to help cover a $4.7 billion budget gap.

Eu não sei ao certo porque ela foi anulada, mas , ao meu ver, ela foi porquanto a pergunta se refere ao estado de Nova Iorque e à cidade de Nova Iorque.
Ao lermos o texto, só podemos ter certeza que a cidade planeja fazer um novo empréstimo, nada é dito a respeito do estado também tomar dinheiro emprestado.

3-A

Primeiro, ele menciona o fato atípico:
That would mean selling bonds to cover day-to-day expenses, something the city has not done since the fiscal crisis of the 1970's.

Depois, ele conclui:
The question, then, is not whether to borrow, but to what degree.

4-D

The state and city each spend about $4 billion a year on debt payments.

Cada um gasta 4. É importante entender que o texto o tempo todo fala da cidade e do estado de Nova Iorque.

5-E

É o uso do but significando exceto.

Se neste mundo nada é certo exceto a morte e os tributos, logo estes são as certezas do mundo.
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  joneselder em Qui Set 10, 2009 9:08 pm

VOCABULÁRIO

Esse texto tem bastantes palavras interessantes:

To loom = aparecer gradualmente
Pinch = aperto (no sentido de crise)
Stands alone = impera absoluta, reina absolut
Sorts = tipos
Sprawling = esparramada, espalhada, difusa
Loans = empréstimo
To weather = combater
Bonds = títulos
Mayor = prefeito
Get through = atravessar, enfrentar
Fiscal gimmicks = brechas fiscais
Fiscal straits = crise fiscal
Assets = patrimônio
Aftermath = consequência, resultado
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

Mensagem  joneselder em Dom Set 13, 2009 2:10 pm

Gabarito em 17/09

Shocks to the system

At the start of the year, it was not uncommon to hear businessmen saying that Brazil was enjoying its best economic conditions for a generation. The country appeared to be well on the way to a period of sustained economic expansion. Most economists were looking to another strong year of growth, with gross domestic product expanding by 4.5 per cent in 2001, on top of 4 per cent in 2000. Real interest rates were about to fall to single digits for the first time in decades.

However, within just a few months, the outlook for the Brazilian economy has deteriorated dramatically. A whole series of unexpected factors are to blame. `We have been confronted by a series of shocks", admits Armínio Fraga, president of the central bank.

The main cause of this turnaround has been the energy crisis. It had been well known for several years that Brazil ran the risk of power shortages because the expansion of capacity was not accompanying growth in demand, leaving the reservoirs that fuel the power stations precariously low. Yet, even with so much advance warning, the introduction of rationing still came as a surprise.

1 - The text suggests that businessmen

a) have succeeded in importing foreign energy.
b) have remained optimistic up until now.
c) are to blame for the energy crisis.
d) have been accompanying the steady Brazilian growth.
e) expressed their optimism concerning Brazil's economy.

2 - Concerning the Brazilian economy, the year 2001 has been

a) disappointing.
b) predictable.
c) invaluable.
d) satisfactory.
e) profitable.

3 - Which aspect is not mentioned in the text?

a) Power shortages.
b) Environmental impact
c) Rationing.
d) Economic expansion.
e) Gross domestic product

4 - According to the text,

a) the energy crisis made interest rates decrease.
b) the president of the central bank predicted thecrisis.
c) Brazil was able to avert the energy crisis.
d) more than one element affected Brazil's economy.
e) advance warning could have avoided the crisis.

Fed steers US rates lower by quarter point

The US Federal Reserve last night demonstrated its determination to steer the American economy away from recession when it cut its key interest rate for the seventh time this year and signalled that borrowing costs could fall again.

The Fed announced it was cutting its funds rate by a quarter of a point to 3.5 per cent, its lowest for seven years, and also reduced its largely symbolic discount rate. The discount rate fell a quarter of a point to 3 per cent, matching lows seen in the early 1990's.

In a statement released alongside the rate decision, the Fed reiterated its so-called "easing bias", a signal that rates are more likely to fall than rise, saying that the risks to the US economy remained 'Weighted mainly toward economic weakness".

The Fed said: "Business profits and capital spending continue to weaken and growth abroad is slowing, weighing on the US economy".

5 - According to the text, the US Federal Reserve

a) might reduce its interest rate for the 1h time.
b) has been cutting its interest rate 7 times a year.
c) has been hying to guide the US economy towards recession.
d) may soon announce its willingness to reduce interest rates.
e) has decided to reduce its interest rates.

6 - According to the author, such lows in the interest rates

a) have occurred before.
b) have weakened the world's economy.
c) are likely to cause global recession.
d) might resolve Europe's recession.
e) have underpinned global growth.

7 - In connection with recession in the American economy, the aim of the Fed is to

a) sustain it
b) bide its time.
c) avert it.
d) restore it
e) interpret it
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Re: Língua Inglesa (zanotta)

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